Neurology mainly treats diseases of the central nervous system, e.g. stroke, craniocerebral injuries, paraplegia or multiple sclerosis. As a rule, these show very complex disturbance patterns which are comparatively slow and rarely completely recede on their own.
Occupational therapy treatment in this specialist area includes, for example:
- Inhibition and reduction of pathological posture and movement patterns and pathways of normal movements
- Coordination, implementation and integration before sensory perceptions / sensory integration
- Improvement of the centrally caused disturbances of coarse and fine motor skills to stabilize sensorimotor and perceptive functions including the improvement of balance functions.
- Improvement of neuropsychological deficits and limitations of cognitive abilities such as attention, concentration, retentiveness, memory or reading-sense understanding, the comprehension of partial steps of an action, the recognition of objects or the comprehension of spaces, time and persons.
- Learning of replacement functions
- Development and improvement of socio-emotional skills in areas such as emotional control, affects and communication
- Training of everyday activities with regard to personal, domestic and professional independence
- Advice on suitable aids and changes in the home and professional environment, production and adaptation of aids if necessary
In order to achieve the goals described above, the therapist uses various treatment approaches, such as Bobath, Affolter, Johnstone, PNF, Perfetti, Castillo Morales or others.
Treatment is considered completed when the agreed treatment goals have been achieved and the patient has acquired certain skills without regaining all previous skills.
Fields of activity of occupational therapy
- in clinics and hospitals specialising in orthopaedics, traumatology, internal medicine, rheumatology, neurology, geriatrics, paediatrics, child and adolescent psychiatry, psychiatry and psychosomatics
- in facilities for disabled children, such as special schools, kindergartens, homes and early treatment centres
- in geriatric facilities such as old people's homes, nursing homes and day clinics
- in social, medical and professional rehabilitation facilities and workshops for the disabled
- in the so-called mobile service and social stations
- in your own practice (after two years of professional experience)
- as an occupational therapist or head of training at schools for occupational therapy